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MS ( EM )

general term for magnetic stimulation, including TMS and stimulation of the peripheral nervous system


general term for all modes of transcranial magnetic stimulation


repetitive magnetic stimulation

single-pulse TMS Pulso simple

non-repetitive TMS

low-frequency TMS
slow TMS (EMTr lento)

repetition rate below 1 Hz

high-frequency TMS rapid-rate TMS ( EMTr Rápido)

repetition rate above 1 Hz

dual-pulse TMS (EMT Pulso dual) . paired-pulse TMS( EMT pulso dual)

stimulation with two distinct stimuli through the same coil at a range of different intervals; the intensities can be varied independently

quadruple-pulse TMS (EMTr Pulso cuádruple)

as dual-pulse stimulation, but with 4 pulses

double TMS EMT pulso doble

stimulation with two stimulation coils applied to different cerebral loci; the timing and stimulus intensity are adjusted separately

multichannel TMS - EMT Multicanal

TMS with multiple (say, 20-100) coils that are independently controlled

TMS mapping Mapeo de EMT

performed by changing the coil position above the head while observing its effects


electromyography, recording of electrical activity associated with muscle movements


motor-evoked potential; an excitatory response to TMS

Excitability (Excitabilidad)


Kindling Subconvulsivo

seizure induction with many sub convulsive stimuli; has never been observed in TMS or rTMS

Reactivity Reactividad


silent period ( PS)

an inhibitory response to TMS; a period after the stimulus during which a second stimulus is ineffective

threshold intensity Intensidad Umbral

the smallest intensity of TMS that causes measurable responses




8-shaped coil (also: butterfly, figure-of-eight, double)

a stimulating coil with two planar wings with opposing current directions; induces a better focused electric field than a circular coil

coil current i

the current circulating in the coil; typically one (biphasic) or more (oscillating) sinusoidal pulses

current rise time

rise time of the coil current from zero to peak, often around 70-100 ms

electric field E

nerves are excited with E, which is induced by a changing B; hence, pulsed magnetic fields are needed for nervous excitation

magnetic field B

The tissue is entirely transparent to B and hence the intensity of B does not describe the efficacy of stimulation; often about 2 tesla on the coil surface and 0.5 T in the cortex

rate of change of current dB/dt

maximum occurs always in the beginning of the current pulse, being equal to capacitor voltage / coil inductance; typically, 150 A/ms

stimulator output

often expressed in % of the maximum output; should be used cautiously, since output varies among stimulator units


a semiconductor switch capable of handling high peak currents in a short time; used to discharge the power capacitor trough the coil


Jarmo Ruohonen, 1997


Ultima actualización: Tue 25th 2022f January 2022 by Dr. Ricardo Rozados
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