BIBLIOGRAFIA POR TEMAS

 

 


INTRODUCCION                                                                          

Belmaker RH. Transcranial magnetic stimulation - a potential new frontier in psychiatry. Biol Psychiatry 1995;38:419-421.

Concar D. Happiness is a magnet. New Scientist 1995;1989:24-29.

Hallett M, Cohen LG. Magnetism: a new method for stimulation of nerve and brain. JAMA 1989;262:538-41.

Kirkcaldie MTK, Pridmore SA. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in psychiatry. Open Mind 1996;14:7-8.

 

REFERENCIAS GENERALES

Barker AT, Freeston IL, et al. Magnetic stimulation of the human brain and peripheral nervous system: an introduction and the results of an initial clinical evaluation. Neurosurgery 1987;20:100-109.

Barker AT, Jalinous R, Freeston IL. Non-invasive magnetic stimulation of human motor cortex. Lancet 1985;1:1106-1107.

Barker AT. An introduction to the basic principles of magnetic nerve stimulation. J Clin Neurophysiol 1991;8:26-37.

Brasil-Neto JP, Cohen LG, Panizza M, Nilsson J, Roth BJ, Hallett M. Optimal focal transcranial magnetic activation of the human motor cortex: effects of coil orientation, shape of the induced current pulse, and stimulus intensity. J Clin Neurophysiol 1992;9:132-136.

Brasil-Neto J, Cohen LG, Pascual-Leone A, Jabir FK, Wall RT, Hallett M. Rapid reversible reorganization in human motor system following transient deafferentation. Neurology 1992;42:1302-1306.

Brasil-Neto JP, Pascual-LeoneA, et al. Post-exercise depression of motor evoked potentials: a measure of central nervous system fatigue. Neurology 1993;43:1010S,A421.

Cadwell J. Principles of magnetoelectric stimulation. In Chokroverty S (Ed), Magnetic Stimulation in Clinical Neurophysiology. Boston: Butterworth;1989:13-32.

Cammarota A, Brasil-Neto J, et al. Differential inhibitory properties of transcranial magnetic, transcranial electric and percutaneous electric brainstem stimulation. Neurology 1993;43: 423P,A261.

Claus D, Murray NMF, et al. The influence of stimulus type on the magnetic excitation of nerve structure. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1990;75:342-349.

Cohen LG, Roth B, Nilsson J, Dang N, Panizza M, Bandinelli S, Friauf W, Hallett M. Effects of coil design on delivery of focal magnetic stimulation: technical considerations. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1990;75:350-357.

Counter SA. Auditory brainstem and cortical responses following extensive transcranial magnetic stimulation. J Neurol Sci 1994;124:163-70.

Cracco RQ, Amassian VE, et al. Excitatory and inhibitory effects of magnetic coil stimulation of human cortex. New Trends and Advanced Techniques in Clinical Neurophysiology (EEG Suppl) 1990;134-139.

Cracco RQ. Evaluation of conduction in central motor pathways: techniques, pathophysiology, and clinical interpretation. Neurosurgery 1987;20:199-203.

Frisardi G, Ravazzani P, Tognola G, Grandori F. Electric versus magnetic transcranial stimulation of the trigeminal system in healthy subjects: clinical applications in gnathology. J Oral Rehab (in press).

Grandori F, Ravazzani P. Magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex: theoretical considerations. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1991;38:180-191.

Hallett M, Cohen LG, Nilsson J, Panizza M. Differences between electrical and magnetic stimulation of human peripheral nerve and motor cortex. In Chokroverty S (Ed), Magnetic Stimulation in Clinical Neurophysiology. Boston: Butterworths, 275-288, 1989.

Meyer BU, Britton TC, et al. Coil placement in magnetic brain stimulation related to skull and brain anatomy. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1991;81:38-46.

Nakamura H, Kitagawa H, et al. Intracortical facilitation and inhibition after paired magnetic stimulation in humans under anaesthesia. Neurosci 1995;199:155-157.

Nielsen JF. A new high-frequency magnetic stimulator with an oil-cooled coil. J Clin Neurophysiol 1995;12:460-467.

Pascual-Leone A, Cohen LG, Hallett M. Demonstration of cortical plasticity in humans with non-invasive transcranial stimulation. TINS 1992;15:13-14.

Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Solé J, et al. Responses to rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex. Brain 1991;117:847-858.

Ravazzani P, Ruohonen J, Grandori F. Magnetic stimulation of peripheral nerves: computation of the induced electric fields in a cylinder-like structure. Adv Eng Soft 1995;22:29-35.

Ravazzani P, Ruohonen J, Grandori F, Tognola G. Magnetic stimulation of the nervous system: induced electric field in unbounded, semi-infinite, spherical, and cylindrical media. Ann Biomed Eng 1996;24:606-616.

Ren CY. A novel electric design for electromagnetic stimulation - the slinky coil. Biomed Eng 1995;42:918-925.

Rosen AD, Lubowsky J. Magnetic field influence on central nervous system function. Exp Neurol 1987;95:679-687.

Roth BJ, Saypol JM, Hallett M, Cohen LG. A theoretical calculation of the electric field induced in the cortex during magnetic stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 81:47-56.

Roth BJ, Cohen LG, Hallett M. The electric field induced during magnetic stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol Suppl 1991;43:268-78.

Roth BJ, Cohen LG, Hallett M, Friauf W, Basser PJ. A theoretical calculation of the electric field induced by magnetic stimulation of the peripheral nerve. Muscle and Nerve 1991;13:734-741.

Roth BJ, Cohen LG, Hallett M, Friauf W, Basser PJ. A theoretical calculation of the electric field induced in the cortex during magnetic stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1991;81:47-56.

Roth BJ. Mechanisms for electrical stimulation of excitable tissue (review). Biomed Eng 1994;22:253-305.

Ruohonen J, Panizza M, Nilsson J, Ravazzani P, Grandori F, Tognola G. Transverse-field activation mechanism in magnetic stimulation of peripheral nerves. Electroencephalog Clin Neurophysiol 1996;101:167-174.

Ruohonen J, Ravazzani P, Grandori F. An analytical model to predict electric field and excitation zones due to magnetic stimulation of peripheral nerves inside limbs. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1995;42:158-161.

Ruohonen J, Panizza M, Nilsson J, Ravazzani P, Grandori F: A new hypothesis on the activation mechanism in magnetic stimulation of peripheral nerve. Electroenceph and Clin Neurophys 1996;101:167-174.

Ruohonen J, Ravazzani P, Nilsson J, Panizza M, Grandori F, Tognola G. A volume-conduction analysis of magnetic stimulation of peripheral nerves. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1996;43:669-678.

Ruohonen J, Ravazzani P, Tognola G, Grandori F. Modeling peripheral nerve stimulation using magnetic fields. J Periph Nerv Sys (in press).

Saypol JM, Roth BJ, Cohen LG, Hallett M. A theoretical comparison of electric and magnetic stimulation of the brain. Ann Biomed Eng 1991;19:317-328.

Shafran B, Maccabee PJ, et al. Spectamine imaging of cerebral blood flow during voluntary movement and focal stimulation of motor cortex with magnetic coil. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1989, 15:314.12.

Tofts PS, Branston NM. The measurement of electric field, and the influence of surface charge, in magnetic stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1991;81:238-239.

Triggs WJ, Macdonell RA, et al. Motor inhibition and excitation are independent effects of magnetic cortical stimulation. Ann Neurol 1992;32:345-351.

Vanderkamp W, Zwinderman AH, et al. Cortical excitability and response variability of transcranial magnetic stimulation. J Clin Neurophysiol 1996;13:164-171.

 

APLICACIONES NEUROLOGICAS Y PSIQUIATRICAS

Ammon K, Gandevia SC. Transcranial magnetic stimulation can influence the selection of motor programmes. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1990;53:705-707.

Belmaker RH. The effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation of rat brain on behavioural models of depression. Brain Res 1995;699:130-132.

Blond S, Caparros-Lefebvre D, et al. Control of tremor and involuntary movement disorders by chronic sterotactic stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. J Neurosurg 1992;77:62-68.

Brasil-Neto JP, Cohen LG, Hallett M. Central fatigue as revealed by postexercise depression of motor evoked potentials: is it caused by depletion of synaptic neurotransmitter stores? Muscle and Nerve 1994;17:713-19.

Brasil-Neto JP, Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Solé J, Cammarota A, Cohen LG, Hallett M. Postexercise depression of motor evoked potentials: a measure of central nervous system fatigue. Exp Brain Res 1993;93:181-184.

Brasil-Neto J, Valls-Solé J, Pascual-Leone A, Camarota A, Amassian VE, Cracco R, Maccabee P, Cracco J, Hallett M, Cohen LG. Rapid modulation of human cortical motor outputs following ischemic nerve block. Brain 1993;116:511-525.

Britton TC, Thompson PD et al. Modulation of postural wrist tremors by magnetic stimulatiion of the motor cortex in patients with Parkinson's disease or essential tremor and in normal subjects mimicking tremor. Ann Neurol 1993;33:473-479.

Catalá MD, Rubio B, Pascual-Leone A. Lateralized effect of rapid-rate transcranial stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on depression. Neurology 1996;46:S28.005.

Chugani HT, Pascual-Leone A, et al. Preoperative assessment of motor plasticity using transcranial magnetic stimulation in children with intractable epilepsy. Neurology 1993;43:999S,A418.

Cohen LG, Bandinelli S, Findley TW, Hallett M. Reorganization in the map of motor cortex outputs after upper limb amputation in humans: a study with focal magnetic stimulation. Brain 1991;114:615-627.

Cohen LG, Hallett M. Methodology for noninvasive mapping of human motor cortex with electrical stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1988;69:403-11.

Cohen LG, Hallett M. Noninvasive mapping of human motor cortex. Neurology 1988;38:904-9.

Cohen LG, Meer J, Tarkka I, Bierner S, Lederman D, Dubinsky R, Sanes J, Jabbari B, Branscum B, Hallett M. Congenital mirror movements: abnormal organization of motor pathways in two patients. Brain 1991;114:381-403.

Ellaway PH, Davey NJ, et al. The relation between bradykinesia and excitability of the motor cortex assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation in normal and parkinsonian subjects. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1995;97:169-178.

Fleischmann A, Prolov K, et al. The effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation of rat brain on behavioural models of depression. Brain Res 1995;699:130-132.

Fuhr P, Cohen LG, Roth BJ, Hallett M. Latency of motor evoked potentials to focal transcranial stimulation varies as a function of scalp positions stimulated. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1991;81:81-89.

George MS, Wassermann EM. Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation and ECT. Convuls Ther 1994;10:251-254.

George MS, Wassermann EM, et al. Daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves mood in depression. Neuroreport 1995;6:1853-1856.

George MS, Wassermann EM, Williams WA, Steppel J, Pascual-Leone A, Basser P, Hallett M, Post RM. Changes in mood and hormone levels after rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the prefrontal cortex. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci, 1996;8:172-180.

Grisaru N, Yarovslavsky U et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression and schizophrenia. Poster Session. Abstracts of VIIth Congress of European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 1994.

Hoflich G, Kasper S, et al. Application of transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment of drug-resistant major depression - a report of two cases. Hum Psychopharm 1993;8:361-365.

Hufnagel A, Elger CE, et al. Activation of the epileptic focus by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human brain. Ann Neurol 1990;27:49-60.

Jennum P, Friberg L, et al. Speech localization using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neurology 1994;44:269-273.

Johansson K, Lindgren I, et al. Can sensory stimulation improve the functional outcome in stroke patients? Neurology 1993;43:2189-2192.

Kolbinger HM, Hoflich G, et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of major depression - a pilot study. Hum Psychopharm 1995;10:305-310.

Ludlow CL, Yeh J, Cohen LG, Van Pelt F, Rhew K, Hallett M. Limitations in electromyography and magnetic stimulation for assessing laryngeal muscle control. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology 1994;103:16-26.

Mathis J, deQuervain D, Hess CW. The silent period following cortically evoked motor potentials in humans: influences of the experimental set-up.

Nielsen JF, Klemar B, Hansen JH. A new treatment of spasticity with repetitive magnetic stimulation in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1995;254-255.

Nirkko AC, Rösler KM, Ozdoba C, Heid O, Schroth G, Hess CW. Pathophysiology of mirror movements: combined evaluation using transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional MRI.

Pascual-Leone A, Reorganisation of cortical motor outputs in the acquisition of new motor skills. Electromyography and Motor Control 1995; 94: WS- 3-2

Pascual-LeoneA, Alonso M, et al. Lasting beneficial effect of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation on slowness in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 1995;45:550P,A315.

Pascual-LeoneA, Catalá MD, Pascual APL. Lateralized effect of rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the prefrontal cortex on mood. Neurology 1996. In press.

Pascual-Leone A, Cohen LG, Brasil-Neto J, Hallett M. Noninvasive differentiation of motor cortical representation of hand muscles by mapping of optimal current directions. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1994;93:42-48.

Pascual-Leone A, Cohen LG, Brasil-Neto J, Hallett M. Differentiation of sensorimotor neuronal structures responsible for induction of motor evoked potentials, attenuation in detection of somatosensory stimuli, and induction of sensation of movement by mapping of optimal current directions. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1994;93:230- 236.

Pascual-Leone A, Rubio B, Pallardo, Catalá D. Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in drug-resistant depression. The Lancet, 1996;348:233-237.

Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Solé J, Brasil-Neto J, Cohen LG, Hallett M. Akinesia in Parkinson's disease Part 1: Shortening of simple reaction time with focal, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neurology 1994;44:884-891.

Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Solé J, et al. Akinesia in Parkinson's disease. II Effects of subthreshold repetitive transcranial motor cortex stimulation. Neurology 1994;44:892-898.

Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Solé J, et al. Resetting of essential tremor and postural tremor in Parkinson's Disease with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Muscle & Nerve 1994;17:800-807.

Reutens DC, Puce A, Berkovic SF. Cortical hyperexcitability in progressive myoclonus epilepsy: A study with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neurology 1993;43:186-192.

Ridding MC, Inzelberg R, Rothwell JC. Changes in excitability of motor cortical circuitry in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol 1995;37:181-188.

Ruohonen J, Ravazzani P, Ilmoniemi RJ, Galardi G, Nilsson J, Panizza M, Amadio S, Grandori F, and Comi G: Motor cortex mapping with combined MEG and magnetic stimulation. In: Functional Neuroscience. Eds. C Barber, G Celesia, GC Comi, F Mauguière. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. Electroenceph and Clin Neurophys (Suppl. 46) 1996:319-324.

Uthman BM, Wilder BJ, et al. Treatment of epilepsy by stimulation of the vagus nerve. Neurology 1993;43:1338-1345.

Wassermann EM, Fuhr P, Cohen LG, Hallett M. Effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on ipsilateral muscles. Neurology 1991;41:1795-1799.

Wassermann EM, McShane LM, Hallett M, Cohen LG. Noninvasive mapping of muscle representations in human motor cortex. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1992;85:1-8.

Wassermann EM, Sadato N, Steppel JH, et al. Comparison of transcranial magnetic stimulation mapping and PET in a subcortical stroke. Neurology 1994;44:582S,A272.

Wassermann EM, Wang BS, et al. Locating the motor cortex on the MRI with transcranial magnetic stimulation and PET. Neuroimage 1996;3:1-9.

Williams WA, Steppel J, et al. Rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in prefrontal cortex: mood and neurendocrine effects. Neurology 1995;4568P,A178.

Zyss T. Deep magnetic brain stimulation - the end of psychiatric electroshock therapy? Medical Hypotheses 1994;43:69-74.

 

EFECTOS CONDUCTUALES, SENSORIALES Y COGNITIVOS

Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, et al. Suppression of visual perception by magnetic coil stimulation of human occipital cortex. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1989;74:458-462.

Baylis G, Rafal R, Driver J. Visual extinction and stimulus repetition. J Cog Neurosci 1993;5:453-466.

Beckers G, Zeki S. The consequences of inactivating areas V1 and V5 on visual motion perception. Brain 1995;118:49-60.

Brasil-Neto JP, Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Solé J, Cohen LG, Hallett M. Focal transcranial magnetic stimulation and response bias in a forced-choice task. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychtry 1992;55:964-966.

Claus D Weis M, Treig T, et al. Influence of repetitive magnetic stimuli on verbal comprehension. J Neurology 1993;240:149-150.

Cohen LG, Bandinelli S, Sato S, Kufta C, Hallett M. Attenuation in detection of somatosensory stimuli by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1991;81:366-376.

Cohen LG, Topka H, Cole R, Hallett M. Leg paresthesias induced by magnetic brain stimulation in patients with thoracic spinal cord injury. Neurology 1991;41:1283-1287.

Day Bl, Rothwell JC, et al. Delay in the execution of voluntary movement by electrical or magnetic stimulation in intact man. Brain 1989;112:649-663.

Grafman J, Pascual-Leone A, Alway D, et al. Induction of recall deficits in a verbal memory task by left temporal and dorsofrontal rapid-rate transcranial stimulation. Neurology 1993;43:545P,A421.

Grafman J, Pascual-LeoneA, et al. Induction of a recall deficit by rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation. Clin Neurosci Neuropsychol 1994;5:1157-1160.

Kujirai T, Sato M, Rothwell JC, Cohen LG. The effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1993;89:227-234.

Müri RM, Rosler KM, Hess CW. Influence of transcranial magnetic stimulation on the execution of memorised sequences of saccades in man. Exp Brain Res 1994;101:521-524.

Müri RM, Vermersch AI, Rivaud S, Gaymard B, Pierrot-Deseilligny C.Different influences of transcranial magnetic stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex and prefrontal cortex on the performance of memory-guided saccades.

Olson JD, Li J, Anand S, Hotson JR. Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered focally over frontal cortex evokes saccades. Neurology 1996;46:S44.006.

Pascual-Leone A, Brasil-Neto J, Valls-Solé J, Cohen LG, Hallett M. Simple reaction time to focal transcranial stimulation: comparison with reaction time to acoustic, visual, and somatosensory stimuli. Brain 1992;115:109-122.

Pascual-Leone A, Cammarotta A, Wassermann EM, Brasil-Neto J, Cohen LG, Hallett M. Modulation of cortical motor outputs to the reading hand of Braille readers. Ann Neurol 1993;34:33-37.

Pascual-Leone A, Cohen LG, et al. The role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in the coordination of bimanual movements. Neurology 1994;44:803S,A329.

Pascual-LeoneA, Comez-Tortosa E, et al. Induction of visual extinction by rapid rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of parietal lobe. Neurology 1994;44:494-498.

Pascual-Leone A, Gates JR, Dhuna A. Induction of speech arrest and counting errors with rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neurology 1991;41:697-702.

Pascual-Leone A, Grafman J et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the study of human cognitive function. In:Sugishita M (Ed), New Horizons in Neuropsychology 1994:93-100.

Pascual-LeoneA, Grafman J, et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: a new tool for the study of higher cognitive functions in humans. In: Boller F and Grafman J (Eds). Handbook of Neuropsychology 1994.

Pascual-Leone A, Hallett M. Induction of errors in a delayed response task by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Neuroreport 1994;5:2517-2520.

Pascual-Leone A, Torres F. Plasticity of the sensorimotor cortex representation of the reading finger in Braille readers. Brain 1993;116:39-52.

Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Solé J, Wassermann EM, Brasil-Neto J, Cohen LG, Hallett M. Effects of focal transcranial magnetic stimulation on simple reaction time to acoustic, visual, and somatosensory stimuli. Brain 1992;115:1045-1059.

Pascual-Leone A, Wassermann EM, et al. The role of reading activity on the modulation of motor cortical outputs to the reading hand in braille readers. Ann Neurol 1995;38:910-915.

Pascual-Leone A, Wassermann EM, et al. The role of the dorosolateral prefrontal cortex in implicit procedural learning. Exp Brain Res 1996;107:479-485.

Takayama Y, Sugishita M. Astereopsis induced by repetitive magnetic stimulation of occipital cortex. J Neurology 1994a;241:522-525.

Takayama Y, Sugishita M. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognitive function. New Horizons in Neuropsychology. M Sugishita Ed. 1994b;101-112.

Taylor JL, Wagener DS, Colebatch JG. Mapping of cortical sites where transcranial magnetic stimulation results in delay of voluntary movement. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1995;97:341-348.

Tombert C. Differential voluntary programming of fingers extensor commands revealed by non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human brain. Neurosci Lett 1995;185:41-43.

Wang H, Wang X, Scheich H. LTD and LTP induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation in auditory cortex. Neuroreport 1996;7:521-525.

 

PHYSIOLOGY

Amassian VE, Quirk GJ, Stewart M. A comparison of cortico-spinal activation by magnetic coil and electrical stimulation of monkey motor cortex. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1990;77:390-401.

Baker SN, Olivier E, Lemon RN. Task-related variation in corticospinal output evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in the macaque monkey. J Physiol 1995;488:795-801.

Benecke R, Classen J. Inhibitory phenomena in individual motor units induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol: Electromyogr Motor Contr 1995;97:264-274.

Bickford RG, Guide M, et al. Magnetic stimulation of human peripheral nerve and brain: response enhahncement by combined magnetoelectrical technique. J Neurosurg 1987;20:110-116.

Classen J, Benecke R. Inhibitory phenomena in individual motor units induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol: Electromyogr Motor Contr 1995;97:264-274.

Cohen LG, Chen R, Gerloff C, Celnik P, Classen J, Wassermann EM, Hallett M. Depression of motor cortex excitability by low frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation. Ann Neurol 1996;40:524.

Day BL, Dressler D, et al. Electric and magnetic stimulation of human motor cortex: surface EMG and single motor unit responses. J Physiol 1989;412:449-473.

Dettmers C, Ridding MC, Stephan KM, Lemon RN, Rothwell JC, Frackowiak RS. Comparison of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at different forces. J App Physiol 1996;in press.

Fadiga L, Fogassi L, Pavesi G, Rizzolatti G.Motor facilitation during action observation: a magnetic stimulation study. J Neurophysiol 1995;v:p-p.

Fritz C, Braune HJ. Silent period following transcranial magnetic stimulation: a study of retest reliability. Electromyog Motor Contr 1995;94:PS-10-1.

Fuhr P, Cohen LG, Dang N, Findley TW, Haghighi S, Oro J, Hallett M. Physiological analysis of motor reorganization following lower limb amputation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1992;85:53-60.

R. J. Ilmoniemi, J. Virtanen, J. Ruohonen, J. Karhu, H. J. Aronen, R. Näätänen, and T. Katila. Neuronal responses to magnetic stimulation reveal cortical reactivity and connectivity. NeuroReport 1997;8:3537-3540.

Jennum P, Winkel H, Fuglsang-Frederiksen A. Repetitive magnetic stimulation and motor evoked potentials. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1995;97:96-101.

Maccabee PJ, Amassian VE, Cracco RQ et al. Magnetic coil stimulation of human visual cortex: studies of perception. Magnetic Motor Stimulation: Basic Principles and Clinical Expererience (EEG Suppl 43) 1991;111-120.

Magnusson C, Stevens H. Visual sensations induced by the changes in the strength of a magnetic field. Am J Physiol 1911;29:124-136.

Mavroudakis N, Caroyer J-M, et al. Inhibitory motor responses evoked with cortical magnetic stimulation in dystonia. Neurology 1994;44:301P,A203.

Mercuri B, Samii A, Grissom J, et al. Effects of the stimulation of the frontal cortex of spinal reflexes. Neurology 1994;44:300P,A202.

Meyer M, Osmand A, et al. Focal cortical hypermetabolism during transcranial magnetic stimulation. Muscle & Nerve 1994;17:1464-1465.

Meyer B-U, Röricht S, Brandt S, Hustedt U, Irlbacher K, Kühn A, Petrow E, Reuter U. Investigations on the organisation and function of the human motor system by transcranial magnetic brain stimulation.

Mills KR. Magnetic brain stimulation: a tool to explore the action of the motor cortex on single human spinal motoneurones. Trends Neurosci 1991;14:401-405.

Mills KR, Thomson CCB. Human muscle fatigue investigated by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neuroreport 1995;6:1966-1968.

Pascual-Leone A, Dang N, Cohen LG, Brasil-Neto JP, Cammarota A, Hallett M. Modulation of human cortical motor outputs during the acquisition of new fine motor skills. J Neurophysiol 1995;74:1037-1045.

Olivier E, Bawa P, Lemon RN. Excitability of human upper limb motoneurones during rhythmic discharge tested with transcranial magnetic stimulation. J Physiol 1995;485:257-269.

Nilsson J, Panizza M, Roth BJ, Basser PJ, Cohen LG, Caruso G, Hallett M: Determination of the site of stimulation during magnetic stimulation of a peripheral nerve. Electroenceph and Clin Neurophys 1992;85:253-264.

Nilsson J, Panizza M, Roth BJ, Basser PJ, Cohen LG, Caruso G, Hallett M: Electric and magnetic stimulation of human peripheral nerves. In: Proc VI Mediterranean Conf Med Biol Eng, M. Bracale and F. Denoth, Eds., Capri, Italy, pp. 413-416, 1992.

Panizza M, Nilsson J, Roth BJ, Basser PJ, Hallett M: Relevance of stimulus duration for activation of motor and sensory fibers: implications for the study of H-reflexes and magnetic stimulation. Electroenceph and Clin Neurophys, Electromyography & Motor Control. 1992;85:22-30.

Panizza M, Nilsson J, Roth BJ, Rothwell JC, Hallett M: The time constants of motor and sensory peripheral nerve fibers measured with the method of latent addition. Electroenceph and Clin Neurophys 1994;93:147-154.

Ruohonen J, Ravazzani P, Ilmoniemi RJ, Galardi G, Nilsson J, Panizza M, Amadio S, Grandori F, Comi G. Motor cortex mapping with combined MEG and magnetic stimulation. In: Functional Neuroscience. Eds. Barber C, Celesia G, Comi GC, Mauguière F. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. Electroencephalog Clin Neurophysiol Suppl 1996;46:319-324.

Sander D, Meyer B-U, et al. Effect of hemisphere-selective repetitive magnetic brain stimulation on middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1995;97:43-48.

Taylor JL, Butler JE, Allen GM, Gandevia SC. Changes in motor cortical excitability during human muscle fatigue. J Physiol 1996;490:519-528.

Taylor JL, Fogel W, Day BL, Rothwell JC. Ipsilateral cortical stimulation inhibited the long-latency response to stretch in the long finger flexors in humans. J Physiol 1995;488:821-831.

Thompson PD, Day BL, et al. Intra-operative recording of motor tract potentials at the cervico-medullary junction following scalp electrical and magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1991;54:618-623.

Topka H, Cohen LG, Cole R, and Hallett M. Reorganization of corticospinal pathways following spinal cord injury. Neurology 1991;41:1276-1282.

Wassermann EM, Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Solé J, Toro C, Cohen LG, Hallett M. Topography of the inhibitory and excitatory responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in a hand muscle. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1994;89:424-433.

Yamada H, Tamaki T, et al. Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on cerebral function in a monkey model. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1995;97:140-144.

Zyss T, Witkowska B, Jarosz J. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: EEG, serum prolactin and cortisol studies in humans. Psychiatr Pol 1995;29:513-27.

 

SEGURIDAD DEL METODO

Bates MN. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer: the epidemiologic evidence. Env Health Persp 1991;85:147-156.

Bridgers SL. The safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation reconsidered: evidence regarding cognitive and other cerebral effects. Magnetic Motor Stimulation: Basic Principles and Clinical Experience (EEG Suppl. 43) 1991;170-179.

Chokroverty S, Hening W, et al. Magnetic brain stimulation: safety studies. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1995;97:36-42.

Classen J, Witte OW, et al. Epileptic seizures triggered directly by focal transcranial magnetic stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1995;94:19-25.

Cohen LG, Hallett M. Cortical stimulation does not cause short term changes in the EEG. Ann Neurol 1987;21:512-13.

Counter SA, Borg E, et al. Hearing loss from the acoustic artifact of the coil used in extracranial magnetic stimulation. Neurology 1990;40:1159-1162.

Dhuna A, Gates J, Pascual-Leone A. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with epilepsy. Neurology 1991;41:1067-1071.

Eyre JA, Glecknell PA, et al. Acute effects of electromagnetic stimulation of the brain on cortical activity, cortical blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate in the cat: an evaluation of safety. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1990;53:507-513.

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